Before we discuss the issue of prayer (salah) , let us first know the ins and outs of thoharoh (purification), because thoharoh is the key to prayer, as explained in the following hadith of the Prophet SAW.
قَالَ رَسُوْلَ اللهِ
“مِفْتَاحُ الصَّلاَةِ الطَّهُوْر” (رواه أبو داود)
Which means: Rasululloh SAW said: “Thoharoh (purification) is the key to prayer”. (Narrated by Abu Daud)
So if the thoharoh is not valid automatically, the prayer is also invalid. Therefore, let us study carefully this Thoharoh problem.
A. Definition of Thoharoh
The definition of Thoharoh according to language is cleaning from hissy dirt (dirt that can be reached by the five senses) such as removing dirt on our body and clothes, or from ma’nawi dirt (dirt that cannot be reached by the five senses) such as cleaning the liver from disease. heart. Meanwhile, according to the meaning of syar’i, thoharoh is a work that aims to remove hadats (such as wudlu ‘and bathing) or eliminate impurity (such as istinja’ and remove impurity from clothes and body) or which means lifting hadats (such as tayammum ) or which means removing uncleanness (such as istinja ‘with stones / tissue etc.) or which is like lifting hadats (such as bathing that is sunk) and which is like removing uncleanness (such as the second and third washing of unclean washing ). So all of these jobs thoharoh.
B. Purpose Of Thoharoh
While the purpose of thoharoh (purification) itself has four things, namely bathing, wudlu ‘, tayammum and eliminating uncleanness.
C. Thoharoh Tools
There are also four tools used for thoharoh (purification), namely:
1. Water, if it is pure and can purify it.
2. Soil, if it is holy and not unclean, can purify and must not be pure and is in the form of dusty soil and not mixed with anything.
3. A tool for tanning the skin, if it includes something stinging that can remove excess skin, whether the residue from the meat, lard, or blood.
4. Stones or the like (tissue) for istinja ‘, if they can remove impurity and include solid, holy objects, and do not include muhtarom objects (not including things that are respected in religion such as objects written with the name of Allah or the Prophet, angels, or written religious knowledge, and also not consisting of human foodstuffs or jinn).
And all of the above will be detailed in their respective chapters.
Discussion Regarding Water
1. Definition of Water
Water is a liquid that is very smooth and soft, the color depends on the color of the place, which Allah made the water as a relief from thirst for those who drink it.
2. Various kinds of water in terms of place of origin.
The origin of water comes from several places, three of which fall from the sky, namely rainwater, snow and dew, and four come out of the earth, namely sea water, river water, well water and spring water. So the seven kinds of water can be used for thoharoh, regardless of the state of nature or color.
3. Various kinds of water in terms of the law.
All water cannot be separated from one of the following three categories:
a. Absolute Water or Tohur Water:
That is water that is holy and can purify. What is included in this absolute water category is any water that has no properties at all. If we ask someone, What is the object in the glass? for example, then they will answer “water”. Or there is a nature, but it is not binding, for example well water, then the nature of the well is not binding. Isn’t it if we move the water into a bathtub to become tub water, or if we put it in the barrels, it becomes water in a barrel. Or we flow it into river water. This kind of water is also called absolute water. It’s different like coconut water, wherever we put coconut water, people will always say that the water is coconut water. So the law of water is sacred and may be consumed, but it cannot be used for thoharoh because water is bound by inherent characteristics.
b. The water is holy but cannot be used for thoharoh.
This kind of water is divided into two kinds:
Water musta’mal is water that is used for obligatory thoharoh such as bathing and ablution ‘is compulsory, but water is not subject to musta’mal water unless it meets the following conditions:
a) That water is water that is not enough, that is, water that is less than two qullah (216 liters). If the water is two qullah or more, it will not become musta’mal water even though it is used repeatedly for thoharoh.
b) That water is used for the obligatory thoharoh. It is different if the water is used for thoharoh which is sunnah, such as wudlu ‘tajdid (renewing wudlu’), bathing in the sunnah, and so on. So if the water used is collected and then used again for thoharoh, it is okay, because water is not punished by musta’mal water.
c) The water has separated from the limbs. It is different if the water still flows in the limbs, then the musta’mal water has not been punished, until the water is separated from the body.
d) The water is collected by vessels that can be welded, such as iron, copper and tin. The jars made of gold and silver were excluded, because they would not produce a substance that could harm human skin, but the law was harom from the perspective of using a container made of gold and silver. It is different if the vessel holding the water is made of clay, glass, plastic, etc., it is not lawful to use it.
e) The water is used in the summer. It is different if it is used in winter, then it is not difficult to use it even though the water is still hot.
f) The water is used for the body. It is different if the water is used to wash clothes, it is not unreasonable.
g) The water is exposed to the heat of the sun in a hot city. It is different if you are in a city that is not hot, then it is not makruh.
h) People who use it are not afraid of illness in themselves. It is different if he believes that using the water will get leprosy, then the law is harom using it.
i) The water is not the only thing he has. It is different if there is no water other than that water, then the law is obliged to use it for thoharoh (purification) and it is not permissible to perform tayammum because of it.
d. Mutanajjis water
The third type of water is water that is exposed to unclean objects and is called water mutanajjis. Meanwhile, the law of water is detailed as follows:
If the water is small (less than two qullah / 216 liters) then an unclean object falls, then the law of water becomes unclean even though it does not change its character (smell, color or taste).
And if there is a lot of water (two qullah or more) then the fall is unclean, then that water is not punished as unclean, unless one of its characteristics changes (color, smell or taste).
Problems in Mutanajjis Water
Unclean Objects That Are Excused If Falling In Water
There are several unclean objects which are considered by religion to not make water unclean, even though water is a bit unclean, namely the following two kinds of unclean:
1. An unclean object that cannot be reached by the naked eye. like an unclean splash or an unclean object that is on the body of a small animal and then perches into the water, then the law is forgiven so that the water can still be used for thoharoh (purification).
2. Animal carcasses that do not have blood in their bodies (if their bodies are cut, they do not drip blood) such as mosquitoes, flies, lizards, and others. If it falls into the water, then the water is forgiven and is not condemned to be unclean so that it can still be used for thoharoh (purification).
However, the unclean objects mentioned above are forgiven with two conditions, namely the entry of the object into the water accidentally and the objects do not change the nature of the water. And if these two conditions are not fulfilled, then it is not forgiven and punished that water is unclean water so that it cannot be used for thoharoh (purification).
How to purify mutanajjis water
There are several ways you can do so that unclean water can return to being holy and purify water so that it can be used for thoharoh (purification), namely as follows:
1. If the water change disappears by itself, for example, because it is left too long and so on. So when the nature of the water returns to its original state, then the law of water will return to being holy and can purify it can be used for thoharoh as long as the water is not less than two qullah or more.
2. If the water change is lost because water is added to the water. So if with the additional water the changes in its character have disappeared as before, then the water is sanctified and sanctified, also provided that the water is not less than two qullah.
3. If the change in the nature of the water is lost because the water is reduced so that it returns to its original character. So the law of water is holy and purifies, as long as the remaining water after deducting is not less than two qullah.
So in the three descriptions above the water can be used again for thoharoh (purification).
Two Qullah Water Measures
Water of two qullah or more is considered as a lot of water, and if it is less than two qullah it means that the water is called little water. Meanwhile, the size of water for two qullah with the current size is 216 liters, or water that is collected in 10 large bottles, or water that is collected in a tub measuring 60 cm long, wide and deep (square) or the same size.
CHAPTER WUDLU ‘
Wudlu ‘is compulsory at the same time as the obligatory prayer time, namely on the evening of isro’, and in the current way it is a specialty or privilege for this ummah.
And the wisdom of wudlu ‘work is only limited to 4 members (face, hands, head and feet), because the 4 members always commit sins so that the wudlu work’ will dissolve the sins committed by the four members.
And the argument for wudlu ‘is the word of Allah Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala:
(الما ئدة: 6)
O you who believe, when you are going to pray, then wash your face and hands up to your elbows, and rub your head and (wash) your feet up to your ankles. (Al Maidah; 6)
A. Definition of Wudlu ‘
The definition of wudlu ‘in language is washing some of the limbs. The origin of the word wudlu ‘is taken from the word wadl’oah which means goodness and beauty. Meanwhile, according to the meaning of syar’i wudlu ‘is washing certain body members with certain intentions and with certain conditions.
B. The Virtue of Wudlu ‘
As for its virtue, there are many hadiths that mention it. Among them are the following hadiths
قَالَ رَسُوْلُ اللهِ I: مَنْ تَوَضَّأَ فَأَحْسَنَ الْوُضُوْءَ خَرَجَتْ خَطَايَاهُ مِنْ جَسَدِهِ حَتَّى خَرَجَتْ خَطَايَاهُ مِنْ جَسَدِهِ حَتَّى خَرَجَتْ خَطَايَاهُ مِنْ جَسَدِهِ حَتََّّ
Rasulullah Sholallohu ‘alaihi Wasallam said: “whoever performs wudlu” perfectly, his sins will come out of his body and will even come out from under his nails “. (Narrated by Muslim)
قَالَ رَسُوْلُ الله I: “الصَّلاَةُ خَيْرٌ مَوْضُوْعٌ وَلاَ يُحَافِظْ عَلَى الْوُضُوْءِ إِلاَّ مُؤْمِنٌ” (رواه احمد)
Rasulullah Sholallohu ‘alaihi Wasallam said: “Prayer is the best that is done and does not pay attention to the work of wudlu” except for a mu’min “. (HR. Ahmad
CHAPTER PRAYER / SALAH
Now is the time we will discuss the problem of prayer and its legal details.
Prayer service which is the second pillar of Islam includes worship that must be performed every day, in which orders and obligations are obtained directly by the Prophet Muhammad Shollallahu ‘Alaihi Wasallam from Allah Subhanahu wa Ta’ala without intermediary when he mi’roj kesidrotul muntaha, and worship Prayer is a deed that will be reckoned for the first time by Allah so that if all of our prayer obligations are perfect, there is hope that all our deeds will also be accepted by Allah and vice versa if there is a deficiency in our prayer obligations, it will result in all our deeds not received by Allah Subhanahu wa Ta’ala, as said the Prophet Shollallahu ‘Alaihi Wasallam:
إن أول ما يحاسب من العبد يوم القيامة الصلاة, فإن صلحت صلح سائر عمله وإن فسدت فسد سائر عمله (رواه الطبراني)
Indeed, the first time that will be recited from a servant’s deeds is his prayer, if his prayer is perfect then all his deeds will also be perfect and if it is damaged it will also mean all his deeds are damaged. (HR. At Thobroni)
Therefore it is our duty to study it well in the hope that the prayers we carry out will be accepted by Allah, as well as all our other acts of worship.
A. Definition of Prayer / Salah
The meaning of prayer according to Arabic is praying, while according to the syar’i meaning of prayer, it is a work that includes the harmonious movement and the reading that begins with takbir and ends with greetings. And that is the meaning of prayer in general, because sometimes there is prayer which consists of just reading without movement and actions such as the prayer of the corpse, the prayer of a person who is tied up and the prayer of a sick person who carries out all the pillars of his prayer with his heart, isn’t it in all descriptions The prayers mentioned above consist of reading only without any movement, and sometimes there are prayers which are carried out with only movements without reading, such as the prayers for people who are mute, and sometimes there are also prayers which are carried out without movement and without reading such as the prayer of a mute person who is bound his body.
B. The Virtue of Prayer / Salah
Worship Prayer is a form of worship that has a very high value in the sight of Allah and its virtue is very great and the rewards are very large as in the following verses and hadiths:
And establish prayers to remember me. (QS. Thoha: 14)
And establish the prayer on both sides of the day (morning and evening) and at the beginning of the night. Indeed, good deeds erase (sins) bad deeds. That’s a warning for those who remember. (QS. Huud: 114)
قال رسول الله I: إن العبد إذا قام في الصلاة فتحت له الجنان وكشف له الحجاب بينه وبين ربه واستقبلته الحور العين ما لم يمتخط أو يتنخع (رواه الطبراني)
If a servant stands up to pray, all the gates of heaven will be opened and the veil will be opened between him and his god and the angels face him as long as he does not blow mucus or phlegm.
قال رسول الله I: إن العبد إذا قام يصلي أوتي بذنوبه فوضعت على رأسه أو على عاتقه فكلما ركع أو سجد تساقطت عنه (رواه الطبراني)
Indeed, a servant if he performs Prayer will participate in all his sins and put on his head and on his shoulders so that every time he bowed or prostrated his sins would fall. (HR. At Thobroni)
قَالَ رَسُوْلُ اللهِ I: مَا مِنْ عَبْدٍ سَجَدَ للهِ سَجْدَةً إِلاَّ رَفَعَهُ اللهُ بِهَا عَبْدٍ سْجَدَ للهِ سَجْدَةً إِلاَّ رَفَعَهُ اللهُ بِهَا دَرَجَةً معَا
There is no servant who prostrate to Allah SWT unless he will be lifted with one prostration one degree and one sin will be erased. (Reported by Khuzaimah)
قَالَ رَسُوْلُ اللهِ I: اَلصَّلاَةُ خَيْرٌ مِنْ مَوْضُوْعٍ فَمَنِ اسْتَطَاعَ أَنْ يَسْتَكْثِرَ فَلْيَسْت
Prayer is the best of a job. Whoever can reproduce the prayer should reproduce. (HR. At Thobroni)
E. The Prayers That Must Be Performed
E. The Salahs That Must Be Performed
It should be noted that the salahs that are required for this ummah are only five daily salahs, namely midday salah, Asr salah, maghrib salah, evening salah and dawn salah, while apart from the five daily salahs above, the sunnah is not obligatory.
F. Salah Times Five Times
F. Salah Times Five Times
Every salah times of the five salahs are divided into 6 times, which are as follows.
1. Fadlilah time: namely a salah time where if salah is performed at that time it will get the priority of performing Salah at the beginning of time (as explained by the Prophet SAW that the most important act of good deeds is to perform Salah at the beginning of time), while the time is starting to enter The beginning of the time from each five salah time until the passage of time is to be used simply to carry out the causes of salah, namely the following tasks, answering the call to salah, performing thoharoh (purification), covering aurot and the amount of time to wait for the congregational salah and others (i.e. approximately from the beginning of the time until 20 minutes later), then when the salah time comes five times then he quickly performs the fardlu salah after doing the asababus salah mentioned above means he has performed the Salah at the time of fadhilah, and the time of fadilah this in every five Salah times is the same time.
2. ikhtiyar time, which is the time chosen by Shari ‘(Islam) to perform salah at that time if you do not want to pray at fadlilah as a second alternative to fadhilah time.
Meanwhile, the time for this endeavor is different for each salah.
3. the jawaz time is not makruh, which is the time it is allowed to end the salah at that time and it is not sinful if the five salahs are carried out at that time, and this jawaz time is different for each salah, and this jawaz time is divided into two, namely the jawaz time not makruh and jawaz makruh time, while the difference between the two lies in the spirituality alone, that is, if the five daily salahs are performed at a makruh jawaz time, then performing the salah at that time is punished as makruh and not makruh if it is done at an unruly jawaz time.
4. the time of hurmah (harom), which is a salah time where if we end the salah until at that time then we will sin because of it without udzur that is accepted by religion. Because if the salah is carried out at that time it will result in part of the salah being carried out outside the salah time.
Whereas the time is if the remaining time of the Salah is not enough to be used for performing the salahs at that time and as a result some of the salahs are carried out outside of that salah time.
And the time of this hurmah (harom) is the same in every salah.
5. udzur time, which is a salah time that can be used to pray at that time, either with the congregation ‘taqdim or ta’khir because of udzur such as traveling, sickness and others, then the dzuhur salah time is the udzur time of salah Asr and maghrib salah time is the udzur time of the evening salah ‘and vice versa.
6. dloruroh time, which is the part of the end of each salah time where if someone is maani ‘(things that prevent salah obligations such as menstruation, nifas fainting crazy, etc.) then that person is released from the maani’, then the law is is if there is still enough time left from that time to say takbirotul ihrom (reading الله أكبر) or more it means that he has got doruroh time from the salah time at that time, so it is obligatory for him to recite the salah at that time and the previous salah if can be called ‘between the two such as Maghrib salah with evening salah’ and dzuhur salah with Asr salah, and that time is called dloruroh time, while the time is not different in each salah, that is, if someone has maani ‘in him, then the maani’ is lost. at certain salah times where there is still enough time left from that salah time to be used to say takbirotul ihrom.
In conclusion, every salah time has the 6 times mentioned above, while the times are sometimes different in each time, while the details of these times in each salah are as follows.
It is called maghrib salah because the time coincides with the setting of the sun and maghrib salah time is the shortest five-time salah time.
Maghrib salah time
While the entry of maghrib salah time starts from the setting of the entire sun circle and comes out of time with the disappearance of the red mega-clouds on the western horizon.
The times of performing maghrib salah
1) The time of fadlilah, which is from the beginning of time to the passage of time to simply carry out the causes of salah.
2) The time for endeavors is the same as the time for fadlilah.
3) Time jawaz and not makruh, same time fadlilah.
4) Time of jawaz but makruh, that is, from the time of fadlilah to the time of hurmah.
5) Time of hurmah, that is, if the remaining time of maghrib is not enough to carry out the maghrib salah perfectly because some of the salahs will be carried out outside the time.
6) Time of udzur, namely all the salah times’.
7) Doruroh time, which is for those who have maani ‘on them then it disappears while maghrib time is still enough time to carry out takbirotul ihrom or more.
Isha salah ‘.
It is called isha salah ‘because the time coincides with the beginning of the night and the time of evening salah’ is the time of five salahs at the longest.
Isha salah time ‘.
Meanwhile, the time begins with the disappearance of the red mega-mountains on the western horizon and the time will come out with the rising of the shodiq dawn.
Times of performing Isha salah ‘
1) the time of fadlilah, which is from the beginning of time to the passage of time just to carry out the causes of salah.
2) Ikhtiyar time, from the time of fadlilah to the passage of the first third of the night, so to find out one third of the night, we count it from the time of maghrib salah (sunset) to the dawn of sodik how many hours between the two, then we sum it all up. Then we divide it into three, for example the sunset at 5.30 and the dawn of Sodik at 4.30 if the total is 11 hours, then divided by three equals 3.7 hours, which means that if it has passed, 9.12 minutes means that the time has passed.
3) The time for jawaz is not makruh, which starts from the first third of the night, until the dawn of Kadzib (approximately 1 hour before the dawn salah).
4) The time of jawaz but makruh, which is from the dawn of Kadzib (about one hour before dawn Kadzib) until the time of hurmah.
5) The time of hurmah, that is, if the remaining time of Isha salah ‘is not sufficient to carry out the evening salah perfectly, because part of the salah will be carried out outside the salah time.
6) udzur time, which is all maghrib time.
7) Dlorurate time, which is for those who are in themselves maani ‘then disappear, while the Isha salah time’ is still sufficient time to be used to perform takbirotul ihrom or more.
It is called the Fajr salah because it is held in the morning, and it is also called the Fajr salah, while the Fajr salah in congregation is the most afdlol the congregational salah from the five daily salahs.
Fajr salah time.
Meanwhile, when the time comes, the dawn of shodiq begins and the time comes out with the rising of a portion of the sun’s circle, although a small part.
The times for performing the dawn salahs.
1) The time of fadlilah, which is from the beginning of time to the passage of time just to carry out the causes of salah.
2) Ikhtiyar time, which is from the beginning of time to ishfar time (ishfar is the time when the atmosphere is already a bit clearer so that we can distinguish who is next to us)
3) Time jawaz and not makruh, namely from the beginning of time until it looks reddish on the eastern horizon.
4) Time of jawaz but makruh, which starts from looking reddish on the eastern horizon to the time of hurmah.
5) Time of hurmah, that is, if the remainder of the Fajr salah time is not sufficient to carry out the Fajr salah perfectly so that part of the salah will be carried out outside that time.
6) Dloruroh time, that is for those who have maani ‘in themselves and then disappear, while the remaining time from Fajr salah is sufficient time to perform takbirotul ihrom or more.
Problems Concerning Salah Times
The Difference Between Fajar Shodiq And Kadzib.
The dawn of Shodiq determines the entry of the dawn salah time and the start of fasting, while the dawn of Kadzib does not show anything, because it is an act of Satan to deceive and deceive humans. Therefore it is important that we know the difference between the two, because between the two there are three striking differences, namely as follows.
The definition of rukun according to the scholars, ‘jurisprudence expert is a part of something where something cannot be done except with that part, for example in ruku salah’ which is a pillar of salah where the salah is invalid if it is not practiced without bowing ‘.
While the number of pillars of salah is 13 which are divided into 4 parts as follows:
1. Pillars of qouli, are pillars of salah which are carried out orally and must be said if heard by himself, namely there are 5 pillars.
a. takbirotul ihrom
b. read the Al-Fatihah letter
c. read the second Tasyahud
d. read salahs to the Prophet SAW on the second tasyahud.
e. Say the first greeting.
2. Rukun-rukun Fi’li, are rukun-rukun-rukun salah which is carried out with the movements of the limbs, namely there are six:
a. perform salahs standing up
b. doing bowing ‘
c. implement i’tidal
d. perform two prostrations
e. carry out sitting between two prostrations
f. carry out sitting while reading the second tasyahud
3. Rukun ma’nawi, is the pillar of salah that cannot be reached by the five senses, namely tartib in carrying out the pillars of salah.
4. Rukun qolbi, is the pillar that is carried out by the heart, namely there is one.
a. carry out salah intentions
The details of the pillars of salah are as follows.
So it is illegitimate to pray unless with the intention, either the salah that he performs the fardlu salah or the sunnah salah.
a. Place of Intention.
The place of the intention is in the heart, the heart that sends the intention, as for reciting it verbally, the law is sunnah to help carry out the intention with the heart, so that if we have pronounced the intention verbally, we just have to remember / pass through what we recited from that intention and that It is easier than starting from the beginning, it is directly carried out by the heart, and if he only says the intention to pray verbally without being accompanied by the intention of the heart then his salah is invalid.
b. Intend time in salah
While the time to intend in salah is when saying takbiratul ihrom either at the beginning of the takbiratul ihrom sentence, in the middle or at the end. The important thing is to cross the intention of praying when saying takbiratul ihrom, in other words the salah intention must be crossed when we say between alif from الله and ro ‘from the sentence اكبر and if carrying out the intention before or after saying takbiratul ihrom then the salah is punished invalid.
c. Degree of Intention and that must be crossed in that intention.
Sometimes the salahs we carry out are fardlu salahs and sometimes sunnah salahs so it is important that we know the difference between salah intentions and what must be crossed in that intention so that we can carry out salah intentions correctly, as for the degree of intention are as follows:
1- if the salah we carry out is fardlu salah, then what we are obliged to cross in that intention is three things:
a- qosdu fi’li, intends to perform salahs, which is what is said in our salah intentions أُصَلِّي (USHOLLI) I intend to perform salahs.
b- Ta’yin, which is determining the type of fardlu salah that we will carry out, for example determining the midday salah, Asr and others.
c- Fardliyah, mentions the word fardlu in our salah intentions.
So if the salahs we carry out the fardlu salah, what we must observe is أُصَلِّي فَرْضَ الظُّهْرِ (USHOLLI FARDLO DZUHRI) I intend to carry out the fardlu dzuhur salah, the rest of that is the law of sunnah like the intentions ROKA; AATIN MUSTAQBILAL QIBLATI ADAA; AN LILLAAHI TA’AALA)
And if he prays in congregation, then it is mandatory to add مَأْمُوْمًا (MA’MUUMAN) in general so that the salah is valid in congregation, and if we perform qosor salahs then it must be added in the intention of قصرا qosorly so that it is permissible for him to pray that salah.
2- And if we perform the sunnah salah mu’aqqotah, namely the sunnah salahs that have a certain time such as dluha salah, witir and others, 2 things must be crossed in the intention, namely as follows:
a- qosdu fi’li, which means to pray which is summarized in our salah intentions أُصَلِّي (USHOLLI) I intend to pray.
b- Ta’yin, which is determining the type of sunnah salah that we will carry out such as dluha salah, witir and others.
And the rest of that intention is a sunnah like the intention below: أَرْبَعَ رَكَعاتٍ مُسْتَقْبِلَ الْقِبْلَةِ أَدَاءً لله تَعَالَى
(ARBA’A ROKA;AATIN MUSTAQBILAL QIBLATI ADAA;AN LILLAAHI TA’AALA)
3- As for if he is going to perform sunnah salahs of the kind of nafilah mutlaqoh, namely sunnah salahs that are not bound by time and cause then in his intention it is enough to pass qosdul fi’li, which means to pray like أُصَلِّي (USHOLLI) I intend to pray, and need to know that the intention to pray does not have to be crossed using Arabic but may be in any language that is important as meaning the obligatory intention.
Examples of Perfect Salah Intents / Niat Salah
1- If the salahs we carry out are fardlu salahs:
أُصَلِّي فَرْضَ الظُّهْرِ أَرْبَعَ رَكَعَاتٍ مُسْتَقْبِلَ الْقِبْلَةِ أَدَاءً لله تَعَالَى
USHOLLI FARDLODZ DZUHRI ARBA’A ROKA; AATIN MUSTAQBILAL QIBLATI ADAA; AN LILLAAHI TA’AALA
I intend to pray fardlu dzuhur four rakats while facing the Qibla in a manner (not qodlo ‘) because of Allah Ta’ala.
أُصَلِّي فَرْضَ الْعَصْرِ أَرْبَعَ رَكَعَاتٍ مُسْتَقْبِلَ الْقِبْلَةِ أَدَاءً لله تَعَالَى
USHOLLI FARDLOL ‘ASHRI ARBA’A ROKA; AATIN MUSTAQBILAL QIBLATI ADAA; AN LILLAAHI TA’AALA
I intend to pray fardlu Asr four rakats while facing the Qibla as is because of Allah Ta’ala.
أُصَلِّيْ فَرْضَ الْمَغْرِبِ ثَلاَثَ رَكَعَاتٍ مُسْتَقْبِلَ الْقِبْلَةِ أَدَاءً لله تَعَالَى
USHOLLI FARDLOL MAGHRIBI TSALAATSA ROKA; AATIN MUSTAQBILAL QIBLATI ADAA; AN LILLAAHI TA’AALA
I intend to perform the fardlu Maghrib three cycles of salah while facing the Qibla naturally because of Allah Ta’ala.
أُصَلِّيْ فَرْضَ الْعِشَاءِ أَرْبَعَ رَكَعَاتٍ مُسْتَقْبِلَ الْقِبْلَةِ أَدَاءَ لله تَعَالَى
USHOLLI FARDLOL ‘ISYAA; I ARBA’A ROKA; AATIN MUSTAQBILAL QIBLATI ADAA; AN LILLAAHI TA’AALA
I intend to pray fardlu Isya ‘four rak’ahs while facing the Qibla naturally because of Allah Ta’ala.
أُصَلِّيْ فَرْضَ الصُّبْحِ رَكْعَتَيْنِ مُسْتَقْبِلَ الْقِبْلَةِ أَدَاءً لله تَعَالَى
USHOLLI FARDLOS SUBHI ROK’ATAINI MUSTAQBILAL QIBLATI ADAA; AN LILLAAHI TA’AALA
I intend to pray fardlu at dawn two rakats while facing the Qibla naturally because of Allah Ta’ala.
2- If the salahs we carry out are sunnah salahs which have certain times or causes.
أُصَلِّي سُنَّةَ الضُّحَى رَكْعَتَيْنِ مُسْتَقْبِلَ الْقِبْلَةِ أَدَاءَ لله تَعَالَى
USHOLLI SUNNATADL DLUHAA ROK’ATAINI MUSTAQBILAL QIBLATI ADAA; AN LILLAAHI TA’AALA
I intend to perform sunnah salahs dluha two rakats while facing the Qibla in a natural way because of Allah Ta’ala.
أُصَلِّيْ سُنَّةَ التَّرَاوِيْحِ رَكْعَتَيْنِ مُسْتَقْبِلَ الْقِبْلَةِ أَدَاءً لله تَعَالَى
USHOLLI SUNNATAT TAROOWIHI ROK’ATAINI MUSTAQBILAL QIBLATI ADAA; AN LILLAAHI TA’AALA
I intend to perform the two rak’ah Tarawih sunnah salahs while facing the Qibla in a natural way because of Allah Ta’ala.
أُصَلِّيْ سُنَّةَ الْوُضُوْءِ رَكْعَتَيْنِ مُسْتَقْبِلَ الْقِبْلَةِ أَدَاءً لله تَعَالَى
USHOLLI SUNNATAL WUDLU’U; I ROK’ATAINI MUSTAQBILAL QIBLATI ADAA; AN LILLAAHI TA’AALA
I intend to pray the sunnah wudlu ‘salah for two rak’ahs while facing the Qibla in a natural way because of Allah Ta’ala.
3- And if the salahs we carry out are sunnah mutlaq salahs.
أُصَلِّيْ رَكْعَتَيْنِ سُنَّةً لله تَعَالَى
USHOLLI SUNNATAN ROK’ATAINI LILLAAHI TA’AALA
I intend to perform two rak’ahs of sunnah salah because Allah the Almighty
Say Takbirotul Ihrom
What is meant by takbirotul ihrom here is to say the sentence اللهُ أَكْبَر and it is said that takbirotul ihrom because after saying takbirotul ihrom it will be the legal harom of everything that was lawful such as eating, talking to humans and others.
a. Conditions for pronouncing Takbiratul Ihrom
It is illegal to say takbirotul ihrom in prayer unless it meets the following conditions:
1- Reciting takbirotul ihrom if he listens to the words of the takbirotul ihrom, it is not valid if it is only spoken with the heart without being heard by his own ears, or just whispering silently.
2- Say takbirotul ihrom in a standing state if the prayer he is performing is the fardlu prayer (because the fardlu prayer must be performed standing up for those who can afford it), if the prayer to be performed is the sunnah prayer then these conditions are not required.
3- Saying takbirotul ihrom in Arabic should not be translated if he is able to pronounce it in Arabic, only if he is unable to pronounce it in Arabic will he pronounce the translation which is Allah the Greatest.
4- Say takbirotul ihrom in an orderly manner, meaning that the sentence الله takes precedence and then أَكْبَر (AKBAR), then it is not valid to say the opposite like أَكْبَرُ اَلله (AKBARU ALLAAH).
5- Say takbirotul ihrom by using the sentence jalalah, namely the sentence اَلله, then the lafad may not be replaced with other names of Allah, and it is not valid to pronounce it, such as اَلرَّحْمَنُ أَكْبَر (ARROHMAANU AKBAR).
6- Saying takbiratul ihrom with the sentence أَكْبَر can not be replaced with something else even though the meaning is like أَعْظَمْ (A’ZDOM) and others.
7- Not extending mad hamzah from lafazd jalalah, namely the sentence of Allah, so if he reads more than three beats (in tajwid) then the takbirotul ihrom is invalid.
8- Does not extend ba ‘in the sentence أَكْبَر because it can change the meaning, and if he does it like الله أَكْبَار (ALLAAHU AKBAAR) the takbirotul ihrom is not valid.
9- Not giving tasydid ba ‘in the sentence أَكَـبَّر (AKEBBAR) because it can change the meaning and if it is pronounced like that then the takbirotul ihrom is invalid.
10- Read takbirotul ihrom without interrupting the two takbir sentences, and if there is a gap between them with time more than just taking a breath then the takbirotul ihrom is invalid.
11- Do not extend the alif from lafazd jalalah الله, and if it is extended for more than seven beats then the takbirotul ihrom is not valid.
12- Do not add the letter و between the two takbir sentences, and if it is done like الله وَأَكْبَر (ALLAAHU WA AKBAR) then the takbirotul ihrom is invalid.
13- Do not add و dies after هـ from lafazd jalalah, with us reading allahuuuu …, and if it is carried out for example اَللّهُوْ أَكْبَرْ (ALLAAHUU AKBAR) then the takbirotul ihrom is invalid.
14- Reading the letters takbirotul ihrom according to their makhroj, and if you pronounce them by replacing some of the letters with other letters then the takbir is invalid as if the letter ر of the sentence أكبر is replaced with the letter و as well as if it is replaced with the letter ل and so on.
15- Saying takbirotul ihrom after the entry of prayer time which he performs if the prayers are prayers that have certain times, then it is not legal to say takbirotul ihrom before the time of prayer he will perform, for example the prayer he will perform is midday prayer then it is not permissible to say the takbirotul ihromnya unless it is actually entered the time of the midday prayer.
16- Saying takbirotul ihrom at the same time as the intention of praying, then it is not valid if the intention is crossed to heart before or after saying takbirotul ihrom.
17- Ending takbirotul ihrom ma’mum from takbirotul ihromnya imam, then it is not legal if takbir ma’mum precedes the takbirnya imam.
18- Saying takbirotul ihrom while facing the Qibla, then it is not valid to say it without facing the Qibla.
19- Saying takbirotul ihrom with the intention of carrying out the pillars of prayer, then it is not valid if he says it with any other meaning.
20- Making the hamzah in lafazd jalalah as hamzah qoto ‘instead of hamzah washol, so you have to read the hamzah, then it is not valid if you don’t pronounce hamzah from the sentence أَكْبَرْ.